Tables 3-2 and 3-3 allocate emissions of the most important greenhouse gases during the late 1980s to human activities. Other substances only produce short-term effects. Another criticism comes from those who argue that population, though it may be a driving force of change, is not necessarily a driving force of degradation (Boserup, 1981; Simon, 1981; Simon and Kahn, 1984). Comparative analysis at the global scale can take various forms. These estimates are of "radiative forcing" by greenhouse gases, that is, the change they produce in the earth's radiative balance that in turn changes global temperature and climate. Consideration of criteria of importance other than current impact may require detailed empirical analyses of factors that look small in an accounting of current human causes of environmental change. The result has been impressive in building demography as a respected, interdisciplinary field within the social sciences, and in gaining knowledge of the causes of population growth. Specific public policies can also have significant environmental consequences, both intentionally and inadvertently. Sack (1990) argues that environmental degradation is intimately tied to social forms and mechanisms that have divorced the consumer from awareness of the realities of production, hence leading to irresponsible behavior that exacerbates global change. Major human proximate causes, such as fossil fuel burning, are conducted by many actors and for many purposes: electricity generation, motorized transport, space conditioning, industrial process heat, and so forth. A second important research area concerns the comparison of national policies in terms of their origins and their environmental effects. Moreover, stable smallholders have an incentive to economize on land and keep it productive, so that land degradation can be slower with more intensive use. a Numbers represent the integrated effects over 100 years of release of one unit mass of the compound, relative to CO2. 5. Initially, projections of the future accounts based on simple models will suffice to guide the research plan for human dimensions. the structure of consumer demand, the population and resource base for agricultural development, forms of national political organization, and development policies. By drastically lowering the rate at which food decayed and hence making perishable crops available to consum-. However, the United States is responsible for approximately 20 percent of global CO2 emissions. 4. Physical scientists know which halocarbons are long-lived catalysts for the destruction of stratospheric ozone and which ones are quickly destroyed; social scientists do not yet know much about which social changes catalyze other changes or about which ones are relatively irreversible. We would do well to remember that chlorinated fluorocarbons were themselves a response to serious environmental problems. All rights reserved. By Stephanie Pappas 03 April 2019. CFCs, initially developed to support a limited set of end uses in the refrigeration industry, have changed not only that industry but also significant aspects of human civilization. No less importantly, the nontoxicity of Freon made it possible for refrigeration technology to be applied to the ambient cooling of buildings, so that air conditioning came to be an ever more important market for the gas. Given the expense and difficulty of obtaining this stored winter ice, food preservation was accomplished largely with chemical additives, the most common being ordinary table salt: sodium chloride. parisons of the environmental impacts of different technologies for energy production and consumption, food production, and other human activities that can have major impacts on the global environment, a topic that has received some attention in the past (e.g., Inhaber, 1978; Holdren et al., 1979, on energy production). Economic growth and energy intensity are closely interrelated and very difficult to forecast. Breweries and restaurants were the heaviest users of this stored winter ice, which was sometimes shipped hundreds of miles to provide refrigeration. Trees help to regulate the climate by absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere. Other industries destroy forest both as an integral part of the manufacturing process and as a by-product. Table 3-1 presents the limbs during two different time periods and a projection for a future period. 2. For maximum efficiency, it had to attain high pressures before being released, which increased the likelihood that the compression equipment might fail. We conclude by stating some principles that follow from current knowledge and some implications for research. Refrigeration and air conditioning have today become so embedded in the American way of life, and in the ways of life of many people the world over, that it is hard to imagine modern food supplies and urban life styles without them. Human activity is driving climate change, including global temperature rise. Careful comparative studies of the social determinants of energy intensity and changes in energy intensity at the level of nation-states are critical for understanding and projecting China's future contribution to the greenhouse effect. ermas, 1970; Offe, 1985). These questions call for research both within and across the boundaries of disciplines and academic specialties. These incentives favored extensive enterprises and encourage livestock production even when returns from beef alone did not pay the cost of production. Source: Calculated from World Resources Institute and International Institute for Environment and Development (1988:Table 7.4). Testing this hypothesis would require research conducted over longer time scales than is common in psychological research. More recently, both native American (Posey, 1989; Prance, 1989) and immigrant populations such as the rubber tappers have maintained the forest by a mixed-management strategy that mimics rather than replaces the biologically diverse natural environment (Browder, 1989). Although the industry operates at a loss (Xi et al., 1989), the government is said to be reluctant to raise prices for fear of inflation and urban unrest. 2. Improved understanding of the human analogues of long-lived catalysts may contribute to increased interest in long-term phenomena in social science. For social scientific work to begin, it will be sufficient to know whether a particular human activity contributes on the order of 20 percent, 2 percent, or 0.2 percent of humanity's total contribution to a global change. For instance, automobile fuel consumption can be analyzed as the product of number of automobiles, average fuel efficiency of automobiles, and miles driven per automobile; the determinants of each of these factors can be studied separately. ers through much of the year, refrigeration changed the whole nature of the American diet. In this view, technology as currently developed is a Faustian bargain, trading current gain against future survival (e.g., Commoner, 1970, 1972, 1977). favors heavy industry on ideological grounds. This research helps clarify how much growth is more or less inevitable because of the momentum built into the age structure of the world population. c Stratospheric water vapor is believed to increase as an indirect effect of CH4 emissions. The important proximate human causes of global change are those with enough impact to significantly alter properties of the global environment of potential concern to humanity. All the research needs identified in this chapter presume that the importance criterion is applied to particular efforts to meet the needs. Research should build understanding of the links between levels of analysis and between time scales. Climate Change Paper Kaitlyn Yinger 4-17-15 Erin Reese Biology 122: 10:30-12:45 Climate Change What really causes climate change? Chinese energy use in 1987 was 435 percent of what it was in 1965, while population was 147 percent, GNP per capita 305 percent, and GNP 97 percent of 1965 levels: (data from World Bank, 1989:Tables 1 and 5). 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